Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on the principle that most disorders are learned ways of behaving that are maladaptive and consequently can be best modified in more adaptive directions through relearning. Treatment focuses directly on modifying the individual's troublesome behaviours without reference to introspection, mental processes and contents, or analysis of the origins of the problem.
Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that treat thoughts and cognitions as behaviours which are amenable to behavioural procedures.
Programs that offer a form of therapy developed by Marsha M. Linehan that is designed especially for people with boarderline personality disorder (BPD) who are involved in self-cutting or other forms of self-mutilitation, have attempted suicide or have suicidal thoughts or exhibit other behaviours related to self-injury. Treatment involves individual therapy, a skills group, telephone contact and therapist consultation. The group skills training has four modules: core mindfulness skills, interpersonal effectiveness skills, emotion regulation skills and distress tolerance skills. The focus of the group sessions is on learning and practicing adaptive skills that are particularly relevant to the problems experienced by people with BPD. While originally developed for this population, dialectical behaviour therapy has been used with people who have other types of emotional disorders.
Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions which focus on helping people relate to and resolve their problems and concerns in the context of their religious/spiritual beliefs. Services are typically provided by ministers, rabbis, priests, imams or lay representatives of a religious tradition who integrate modern psychological thought and methods with traditional religious training. Included are pastoral counselling programs which are offered in a variety of settings including pastoral counselling centres, inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities and in private practice; chaplaincy services where non-denominational clerics are attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, school, business, police department, fire department, university or private chapel; and other religious counselling disciplines.
Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on any of the psychological systems that explain behaviour in terms of motivational forces at the unconscious level. Therapy focuses on the mental and emotional forces or processes, especially those experienced and developed in early childhood, and their effects on the individual's past and current behaviour and mental states.
Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on the theory developed by Albert Ellis that self-defeating thoughts and irrational beliefs and feelings underlie disordered behaviour. RET therapists identify and vigorously challenge irrational thoughts and beliefs utilizing a technique called cognitive restructuring to alter maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with more adaptive cognitions.
Programs that specialize in providing task-oriented therapeutic interventions which focus on helping people resolve a particular problem in their lives as opposed to looking at the etiology of the problem, e.g., a personality disorder that may be an underlying causal factor. Therapy is generally relatively brief, focuses on practical suggestions for dealing with the issue and concludes when a strategy for approaching the problem has been agreed upon and the person's situation has been stabilized. Clients may return for a new series of brief therapy sessions on an as-needed basis if new problems surface.
Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that use specially programmed computers, visual immersion devices and artificially created environments that to diagnose and treat psychological conditions that cause difficulties for patients. In many environmental phobias, reaction to the perceived hazards (such as heights, speaking in public, flying or closed spaces) are usually triggered by visual and auditory stimuli. In VR-based therapies, the virtual world is a means of providing artificial, controlled stimuli in the context of treatment, when a therapist is present to monitor the patient's reaction. VRT is widely used as an alternative form of exposure therapy in which patients interact with harmless virtual representations of traumatic stimuli in order to reduce fear responses. It is especially promising as a treatment for PTSD as well as a variety of anxiety disorders.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.