Programs that provide treatment which includes approved medication (e.g., methadone, buprenorphine, naltrexone, antabuse) to support the efforts of individuals with an opioid or alcohol use disorder to abstain from or reduce their use of opioids (usually heroin or painkillers such as oxycontin or morphine) or alcohol. The extended-release, injectable form of naltrexone (Vivitrol) may also be used. The objective of maintenance is to gradually reduce the amount of the substitute drug that is required in order to reduce and, if possible, eventually eliminate dependency altogether. Medication assisted maintenance treatment (MAT) may be provided in an outpatient treatment program (OTP) or OTP unit such as a pharmacy or physician's office, or for buprenorphine products (Bunavail, Suboxone, Subutex, Zubslov), a physician's office or other health care setting. Methadone maintenance treatment is provided in a clinic. It is recommended that medication assisted maintenance treatment be provided in combination with counselling and behavioural therapies.
Programs that help prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other blood borne infectious diseases by providing new, sterile syringes and other sterile injection supplies to needle users in exchange for used ones; or which sell new hypodermic needles and syringes to high risk individuals who have a prescription or, in jurisdictions where it is permitted, without a prescription.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.