Programs that provide classes, workshops or other educational opportunities for parents or potential parents who want to acquire the knowledge and skills to be effective in their parenting role.
Mutual support groups whose members are individuals who have adopted a child or are considering or in the process of adoption, birth parents who relinquished a child for adoption, people who were, themselves adopted, foster care providers, children in foster care, kinship caregivers (paternal or maternal grandparents, aunts, uncles and other family members, members of a child's tribe or clan, godparents, stepparents, neighbours, friends of the family or other adults who can serve as "family"), children cared for by relatives under a formal or informal kinship care arrangement and/or adults who, as children, were raised in foster or kinship care. Groups may also be structured for adoptees, siblings and/or birth parents who have been reunited; older kinship caregivers who have taken on an unexpected parenting role later in life; and people who have other kinship issues, e.g., grandparents and other relatives who have been denied access to a grandchild or other youngster due to a death or divorce in the child's family. Meeting formats may include in-person, telephone or Internet options.
Mutual support groups whose members are pregnant women or women who have had difficulties in areas relating to family planning, pregnancy and childbirth. Included are groups for individuals who are pregnant for the first time, women who are contemplating a home birth, breastfeeding women, families making decisions relating to birth control, women who have had a cesarean birth, women who are at high risk for a problem pregnancy and parents of premature or high-risk infants. The groups meet in-person, by telephone or via the Internet; and provide an opportunity for participants to share their experience, strengths and hopes, understand their relationships and work through related emotions.
Programs that provide a wide variety of therapeutic interventions for parents who are experiencing emotional difficulties or conflicts concerning their role as parents. Included are individual or group counselling for one or both parents or conjoint parent counselling which focuses on and explores the mental, emotional or social problems of the individual(s) which contribute to their parenting problems.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.