Programs that provide formal supervision of offenders released conditionally on probation or parole or confined to their homes or other venues in the community; that offer alternatives to involvement in the juvenile justice system for youth involved in minor summary conviction offences; or that provide the option of participating in counselling, educational or work programs as an alternative to incarceration in a correctional facility, payment of a fine or other sanctions. Defendants convicted of less serious crimes may be sentenced to simple probation, i.e., supervision in the community under the direction of a probation officer. For other crimes, a judge may choose from three intermediate sanctions: community confinement, intermittent confinement, and home detention. For more serious crimes, judges may impose a split sentence, in which the defendant spends a short time in prison and the remainder of the sentence in one of the intermediate sanctions. Community confinement means residence in a treatment centre outside the prison walls, such as a halfway house or drug rehabilitation centre. Community confinement may be imposed instead of prison time, or as a means of easing transition back into the community after time spent in prison. Intermittent confinement means the defendant is free to go to work or live at home for part of the week, but must spend time in jail on weekends. Home confinement is a judicially managed system of punishment and control for offenders deemed safe enough to live in their own homes, but requiring a higher degree of supervision.
Programs that provide assistance for people who want to submit a petition requesting the official and formal sealing or erasure of records related to a particular criminal case where there was a not-guilty outcome (including acquittal, or charges that were withdrawn, dismissed or stayed) or a conditional or absolute discharge. Where there has been no conviction, such records are under the legal jurisdiction of the local police force that laid the charges, and the response will depend on the current policies of the local police service. Most jurisdictions have laws that permit, even mandate, the expungement of juvenile records as well as statutes that relate to adult records and the conditions under which they may be cleared.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.