Programs that attempt to reduce the incidence of bullying, a form of violence among children, on school playgrounds, in neighbourhoods and in homes, through a variety of interventions which may include use of an anonymous questionnaire to assess the nature and prevalence of the problem, development and announcement of an intervention program, open discussions of bullying at school and in other venues, increased supervision of children in areas that are "hotspots" for bullying, arrangements for reporting bullying incidents, immediate intervention when bullying incidents occur, development of protective strategies for targets, formation of support groups for victims of bullies, discussions with parents of involved students, and engagement of community members in support of the program. Most bullying prevention programs are school based and target students in elementary, middle and junior high schools. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or psychological; and involves intentional, repeated hurtful acts, words and other behaviour such as name-calling, threatening or shunning committed by one or more children against another child.
Programs that offer a variety of activities for youth who are at risk for behaviour which is likely to involve them in the juvenile justice system with the objective of assisting them to improve self-esteem, to become aware of alternative ways of dealing with feelings and leisure time, and to take responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Included may be counselling, rap and discussion groups, tutoring, companionship programs, alternative peer group experiences and supervised recreational activities.
Programs offered by community and law enforcement agencies that attempt to reduce the incidence of gang violence by providing counselling, recreational activities and other preventive alternatives; and/or by establishing direct contact with gang members, mediating intergang disputes, facilitating intergang communication and mobilizing the community to support gangs in finding nonviolent ways to reconcile their differences.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.